목차

쟁점:오늘의 위기와 저항

오늘날 중국의 저항 운동

MARX21

참고 문헌

김용욱 2008a, ‘티베트 논쟁-티베트인들의 투쟁을 옹호하라’, <맞불> 80호(2008.3.31).

김용욱 2008b, ‘올림픽 성화 봉송 소동과 ‘중화민족주의’’, <맞불> 85호(2008.5.5).

김용욱 2010, ‘중국 노동자 투쟁 — 신세대 노동계급 운동의 탄생’, <레프트 21> 35호(2010.7.3).

김정호 2010, ‘개혁은 사회주의의 본질적 요구’, <레디앙>(2010.12.20).

남지현 2011, ‘中, 정상적인 급여 인상 메커니즘 구축 총력전’, Cnews365(2011.3.10).

뒤메닐, 제라르 & 레비, 도미니크 2009, 《현대 마르크스주의 경제학》, 그린비.

등대마루 2008, ‘중국에는 유럽과 아프리카가 공존한다’, http://blog.ohmynews.com/dima0306/195402

마플릿, 필 2011, ‘시장과 신자유주의에 맞서는 이집트 혁명’, <레프트21> 51호(2011.2.26).

백승욱 2008, 《세계화의 경계에 선 중국》, 창비.

샤오쉐후이 2006, ‘교육은 산업화의 대상인가 또는 필요한 유토피아인가?’, 왕후이, 리민치 외 지음, 《고뇌하는 중국》, 도서출판 길.

셰퍼드, 팀 2007, ‘중국 경제 기적의 비결 — 중국판 식칼 테러’, <맞불> 69호(2007.12.17), http://www.left21.com/article/4876

이정구 2009, 《1990년대 이후 중국 국가자본주의의 전개과정 연구》, 경상대학교 박사학위 논문.

전상희 2007, ‘중국 NGO연대 활발’, <시민사회신문> 11호(2007.7.9).

추이즈위안·백승욱 2003, ‘[대담] 중국식 사회주의 길의 꿈: 추이 즈위안-백승욱’, 추이 즈위안, 《중국은 어디로 가고 있는가》, 창비.

캘리니코스, 알렉스 2011, ‘아랍 혁명의 귀환’, 《마르크스21》 9호(2011년 봄).

하비, 데이비드 2007, 《신자유주의》, 한울아카데미.

한더치앙 2011, 《13억의 충돌》, 이후.

한호석 2011, ‘자마히리야 붕괴의 비극’, <변혁과 진보>(2011.3.3), http://changesk.blogspot.com/2011/03/blog-post.html

호어, 찰리 2005, 《천안문으로 가는 길》, 책갈피.

方堃·黄莉·李响, 2009, ‘藏区3.14事件社会、经济成因调查报告 — 公盟法律研究中心’, http://woeser.middle-way.net/2009/05/314.html

珍藏本 2009, 《零八憲章》, 開放出版社.

Ai, Weiwei 2011, Interview with Time Out Hong Kong (Mar 16, 2011), http://www.timeout.com.hk/feature-stories/features/41086/ai-weiwei.html

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Ali, Tariq 2011, ‘This is an Arab 1848. But US hegemony is only dented’, Guardian (February 22, 2011).

Anderlini, Jamil 2011, ‘Unrest spreads among China’s migrant masses’, Financial Times (June 17, 2011).

Anderson, Kevin 2011, ‘Arab revolution at the crossroads’, US Marxist Humanist (March 31, 2011), http://www.usmarxisthumanists.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/anderson-article-arabrevolutions-at-the-crossroads.pdf

Applebaum, Richard P 2009, ‘Big suppliers in Greater China: A Growing Counterweight to the Power of Giant Retailers’, edited by Ho-Fung Hung, China and the Transformation of Global Capitalism, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bergère, Marie-Claire 2007, Capitalismes et capitalistes en Chine : XIXe-XXIe siècle, Librairie Académique Perrin.

Chalcraft, John 2008, ‘Assault on Consent’, Paper for Social movement in the Global South (June 2008).

Chan, Anita 2006, ‘Realities and Possibilities of Chinese trade unionism’, ed by C Phelan, The Future of Organized Labour, Oxford.

Chan, Chris King-Chi & Pun, Ngai 2009, ‘The Making of New Working Class?: A Study of Collective Actions of Migrant workers in South China’, The China Quarterly No.198 (June 2009).

Chan, Chris King-Chi 2010, The Challenge of Labour in China, Routledge.

Chan, Kam Wing 2010, ‘The Global Financial Crisis and Migrant Workers in China: ‘There is No Future as a Labourer; Returning to the Village has No Meaning’’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (September 2010).

Chen, Chih-jou Jay 2009, ‘Growing Social Unrest in China: Rising Social Discontents and Popular Protests, ed by Guoguang Wu, Helen Lansdowne, Socialist China, Capitalist China, Routledge.

Chen, Feng 2010 ‘Trade Unions and the Quadripartite Interactions in Strike Settlement in China’, The China Quarterly No.201, (March 2010).

Chen, Jie & Dickson, Bruce 2010, Allies of the State: China’s Private Entrepreneurs and Democratic Change, Harvard University Press.

China Labor Bulletin 2009, Going it Alone: The Workers’ Movement in China 2007-2008 (July 9, 2009).

China Labor Bulletin 2010, ‘进厂打工杂感 - 打工经历(Random Thoughts on Factory Life - Experiences as a migrant worker)’ (July 21, 2010), http://www.clb.org.hk/en/node/100834#进厂打工杂感

China Labor Bulletin 2011a, Unity is Strength: The Workers’ Movement in China 2009-2011 (October 11 2011).

China Labor Bulletin 2011b, ‘Workers at Pepsi bottling plants in China protest takeover’ (November 10, 2011).

Dickson, Bruce J 2007, ‘Integrating Wealth and Power in China: The Communist Party’s Embrace of the Private Sector’, China Quarterly No.192 (December 2007).

Duménil, Gérard & Lévy, Dominique 2011, The Crisis of Neoliberalism, Harvard University Press.

Dyer, Geoff 2010, ‘China: No one home’, Financial Times (February 21, 2010.)

Friedman, Eli & Lee, Ching Kwan 2010, ‘Remaking the World of Chinese Labour: A 30-Year Retrospective’, British Journal of Industrial Relations (September 2010).

Friedman, George 2011, ‘Egypt: The Distance Between Enthusiasm and Reality’, Stratfor (February 14, 2011).

FT reporters 2010, ‘China: To the money born’, Financial Times (March 29, 2010).

Garnaut, John 2011, ‘Profound shift as China marches back to Mao’, Sydney Morning Herald (October 9, 2011).

Goldman, Merle 2005, From Comrade to Citizen: The Struggle for Political Rights in China, Harvard University Press.

Han, Dongfang 2011, ‘China’s main union is yet to earn its job’, Guardian (June 26, 2011).

Hickey, Dennis V & Kawamoto, Takashi 2010, ‘More than just income gap to bridge’, China Daily (January 27, 2010).

Holland, Tom 2009a, ‘You can’t have decoupling in an age of globalisation’, South China Morning Post (June 26, 2009).

Holland, Tom 2009b, ‘A clash of views over Chinese consumers’, South China Morning Post (September 29, 2009).

Holland, Tom 2009c, ‘The economic lesson China must learn from 1980s Japan’, South China Morning Post (October 21, 2009).

Hore, Charlie 2008, ‘China, Tibet and the left’, International Socialism 119 (Summer 2008), www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=457

Hore, Charlie 2011, ‘China: The central role of migrant labour’, Socialist Worker 2266 (August 27, 2011), www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25774

Huang, Cary 2009, ‘Going backwards ever faster’, South China Morning Post (August 02, 2009).

Huang, Cary 2011a, ‘Poisoned villages’, South China Morning Post (May 24, 2011).

Huang, Cary 2011b, ‘Farm seizures sow seeds of social unrest’, South China Morning Post (October 31, 2011).

International Socialism 2011, ‘International Socialism Journal seminar on “Egypt, Tunisia and Revolution in the Middle East”’ (February 23, 2011), http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=716.

Jacob, Rahul 2011, ‘China labour unrest flares as orders fall’, Financial Times (24 November 2011).

King, Stephen J 1999, ‘Structural Adjustment and Rural Poverty in Tunisia’, Middle Eastern Report and Information Project 210(Spring 1999).

la redaction du Alternative Economique 2010, ‘Conditions de fabrication: quel rôle pour les consommateurs?’, Alternative Economique 297 (décembre 2010), http://www.alternatives-economiques.fr/conditions-de-fabrication--quel-role-pour-les-consommateurs_fr_art_978_51925.html

Lai, Chloe 2009, ‘Migrant workers, the unsung heroes of the economic revolution, reap few of its rewards’, South China Morning Post (September 29, 2009).

Lee, Ching Kwan 2007, ‘Workers and the quest for Citizenship’, edited by You-tien Hsing, Ching Kwan Lee, Reclaiming Chinese Society: The New Social Activism, Routledge.

Li, Minqi 2010, ‘Peak Energy and the limits to Economic Growth: China and the World’, edited by Li Xing, The Rise of China and the Capitalist World Order, Ashgate.

Maher, Stephen 2011, ‘The Political Economy of the Egyptian Uprising’, Monthly Review, Volume 63, Issue 06(November 2011), http://monthlyreview.org/2011/11/01/the-political-economy-of-the-egyptian-uprising

Marzouki, Nadia 2011, ‘Tunisia’s Wall Has Fallen’, Middle Eastern Report and Information Project 261(Winter 2011).

Ministry of Information Industry of China 2006, Annual Economics Data Report on the Electronics and Information Industry.

Mooney, Paul 2006, ‘How to Deal With NGOs – Part I, China’, YaleGlobal Online (1 August 2006).

Nolan, Peter & Zhang, Jin 2010, ‘Global Competition 
After the Financial Crisis’, New Left Review 64(July-August 2010).

Perry, Elizabeth 2008, ‘Permanent Rebellion? Continuities and discontinuities in Chinese protest’, edited by Kevin J O’Brian, Popular Protest in China, Havard University Press.

Pfeifer, Karen 1999 ‘How Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan and Even Egypt Became IMF “Success Stories” in the 1990s’, Middle Eastern Report and Information Project 210(Spring 1999).

Pilling, David 2011, ‘Why the Chinese are not inspired by Egypt’, Financial Times (February 16, 2011).

Pringle, Tim 2011, Trade Unions in China, Roultledg.

Ren, Daniel 2011, ‘Stability fears as small businesses feel the pressure’, South China Morning Post (October 29, 2011).

Reuters, ‘Strikes crippling Western brands’ (November 26, 2011).

Shaumbaugh, David 2008, China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation, University of California Press.

Shenker, Jack & Gabbatt, Adam 2011, ‘Tahrir Square protesters send message of solidarity to Occupy Wall Street’, Guardian (October 25, 2011).

Shi, Jiangtao 2011, ‘Dalian protest ‘won’t be the last’’, South China Morning Post (August 16, 2011).

South China Morning Post, ‘Hopeful sign on pollution amid smelter clash’ (August 8, 2009).

Strasser, Max & Mohamed, Elmeshad 2011, ‘From bringing down Ben Ali to fixing up Wall Street’, Al Masry Al Youm (October 28, 2011), http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/509529

Tam, Fiona 2009, ‘10,000 fight riot police over Fujian pollution - Villagers blame tannery and oil refinery for rise in cancers’, South China Morning Post (September 2, 2009).

Tsai, Kellee S 2007, Capitalism Without Democracy: The Private Sector in Contemporary China, Cornell University.

Wang, Hui 2006, ‘Reform and destiny of Chinese workers—Investigative report on reforms carried out by the Jiangsu Tongyu Group’, Tian Ya No. 1, http://docs.china-europa-forum.net/doc_439.pdf

Whyte, Martin 2010, Myth of the Social Volcano: Perceptions of Inequality and Distributive Injustice in Contemporary China, Stanford University Press.

Wright, Teresa 2010, Accepting Authoritarianism: State-Society Relations in China’s Reform Era, Stanford University.

Xue, Hong 2008, ‘Local Strategies of Labor Control: A Case Study of Three Electronics Factories in China’, International Labor and Working Class History No.73(Spring 2008).

Yu, Au Lung 2011, ‘How Socialist Is the Chinese Party State?’, New Politics Vol. XIII-3(Summer 2011).

Yu, Verna 2011a, ‘Crackdown on church continues’, South China Morning Post (May 16, 2011).

Yu, Verna 2011b, ‘‘Repressive but resilient’ regime baffles critics’, South China Morning Post (June 5, 2011).

Zhan, Shaohua 2011, ‘What Determines Migrant Workers’ Life Chances in Contemporary China? Hukou, Social Exclusion, and the Market’, Modern China vol. 37 no. 3 (May 2011).

Zhang, Ed 2011, ‘Slowdown in Reform Efforts under Attack’, South China Morning Post (October 3, 2011).

Zhang, Liang & Nathan, Andrew J 2002, The Tiananmen Papers, Public Affairs.

Zhang, Lu 2008, ‘Lean Production and Labor Controls in the Chinese Automobile Industry in An Age of Globalization’, International Labor and Working Class History No.73 (Spring 2008).

Zuo, Mandy 2011a, ‘Blunt-speaking Wen drives home inflation warning’, South China Morning Post (April 15, 2011).

Zuo, Mandy 2011b, ‘14 areas targeted in plan to improve lives of poor’, South China Morning Post (June 11, 2011).

  1. 한호석 2011.
  2. Pilling 2011.
  3. Zhang & Nathan 2002.
  4. Yu 2011b.
  5. Ai 2011.
  6. 캘리니코스 2011, Alexander 2011, Ali 2011, Anderson 2011을 참고하시오.
  7. Strasser & Mohamed 2011.
  8. Shenker & Gabbatt 2011.
  9. 캘리니코스 2011, p28.
  10. Pfeifer 1999.
  11. 마플릿 2011.
  12. Maher 2011, King 1999.
  13. 하비 2007, 6장.
  14. Maher 2011.
  15. Marzouki 2011.
  16. Friedman 2011.
  17. Chalcraft 2008, pp3-4.
  18. International Socialism 2011, http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=716에서 볼 수 있다.
  19. Chalcraft 2008, p7.
  20. 캘리니코스 2011, p23.
  21. Shaumbaugh 2008, 3장을 보시오.
  22. 마오 시대 경제 발전의 모순에 대해서는 이정구 2009의 3장과 4장을 보시오.
  23. 상하이 자본가들 중 혁명 중국에 남은 이들은 소유권을 박탈당했다. 이들 중 일부는 국가 경영자로 상당한 성공을 거뒀고, 1978년 개방을 시작할 때 이들이 홍콩 자본가들과 과거 가졌던 연줄이 매우 중요한 구실을 했다. Tsai 2007, pp50-53.
  24. Chen & Dickson 2010, pp34-35.
  25. Chen & Dickson 2010, p41.
  26. Bergère 2007, p336.
  27. Chen & Dickson 2010, p44.
  28. Zhang 2011.
  29. Shaumbaugh 2008, p168.
  30. 이것은 오늘날 중국이 여전히 제국주의의 희생양이라고 말하려는 것이 아니다. 중국은 아시아 지역에서 제국주의 열강으로 부상하고 있고 세계적으로 영향력이 확대되고 있다.
  31. 김용욱 2008b를 보시오.
  32. FT reporters 2010.
  33. Shaumbaugh 2008, pp124-125.
  34. 뒤메닐 & 레비 2009.
  35. 뒤메닐과 레비의 주장을 이해하려면 이들이 사용하는 ‘자본가’, ‘관리자 계급’, ‘하층계급’의 의미를 이해해야 한다. 마르크스주의적 개념과는 상당히 다르기 때문이다. 뒤메닐과 레비는 20세기 발생한 세계사적 전환 — 러시아 혁명, 뉴딜, 나치, 전후 사민주의의 정권 등장 등 — 을 일으킨 핵심 동력이 자본가, 관리자, 하층계급 사이 동맹 관계의 변화에 있다고 주장한다. 특히, 관리자 계급이 자본가와 하층계급 중 누구와 동맹을 맺는지가 중요했다는 것이다. 동맹 없이 관리자 계급이 독자적으로 경제를 통제한 극단적 사례가 소련과 중국 등 스탈린주의 체제이고, 제2차세계대전 이후 등장한 복지국가는 관리자 계급이 노동자 민중과 동맹을 맺은 사례이고, 신자유주의는 관리자 계급이 ‘자본가’와 동맹했을 때 탄생한 체제라는 것이다.
  36. Duménil & Lévy 2011, p325.
  37. 김정호 2010.
  38. Huang 2011b.
  39. 남지현 2011.
  40. Huang 2009.
  41. Hickey & Kawamoto 2010.
  42. 등대마루 2008.
  43. Zuo 2011b.
  44. Holland 2009b.
  45. 최근 중국 중앙정부가 꾀하는 변화에 관해서는 김용욱 2010을 보시오.
  46. Li 2010, p96.
  47. la redaction du Alternative Economique 2010.
  48. Nolan & Zhang 2010.
  49. Applebaum 2009, p77.
  50. 백승욱 2008, p128.
  51. Chan, Kam Wing 2010, p665.
  52. Holland 2009a.
  53. ‘유럽 위기에 악재 ‘겹겹’.. 상하이 0.3%↓’, <아시아 경제>(2011.9.6).
  54. ‘성장률 8% 지켜 年 1000만 개 일자리 만들어라’, <중앙일보>(2008.12.21).
  55. Holland 2009c, 한 중국 경제학자는 <파이낸셜 타임스>와 한 인터뷰에서 중국의 자본/산출 비율이 거품 경기가 절정에 달했던 일본보다 훨씬 높다고 말했다. 그만큼 과잉 투자 문제가 심각해 이윤율이 압박을 받고 있다는 것이다. Dyer 2010.
  56. Yu 2011b.
  57. Ren 2011.
  58. Dickson 2007.
  59. Tsai 2007.
  60. Chen & Dickson 2010, pp68-69.
  61. Chen & Dickson 2010, p68.
  62. 중국노총 헌장 제6조, Chen 2010, p109에서 재인용.
  63. Shaumbaugh 2008, p168.
  64. Goldman 2005의 6장을 보시오.
  65. 珍藏本 2009, pp14-15.
  66. 추이즈위안·백승욱 2003.
  67. 한더치앙 2011.
  68. Yu 2011.
  69. Wang 2006.
  70. Garnaut 2011.
  71. 전상희 2007.
  72. China Labor Bulletin 2009, p20.
  73. 셰퍼드 2007.
  74. Friedman & Lee 2010, pp523-524.
  75. Mooney 2006.
  76. Yu 2011a.
  77. Han 2011.
  78. China Labor Bulletin 2009, p7에서 재인용.
  79. China Labor Bulletin 2009, p7.
  80. Chen 2009, pp14-15.
  81. 方堃·黄莉·李响 2009, http://woeser.middle-way.net/2009/05/314.html에서 보고서 전체를 볼 수 있다. 2008년 티베트 항쟁에 관한 마르크스주의적 분석으로는 Hore 2008을, 티베트인들의 항쟁에 관한 국제 좌파들의 논쟁에 대해서는 김용욱 2008a를 보시오.
  82. Huang 2011a.
  83. South China Morning Post, ‘Hopeful sign on pollution amid smelter clash’ (August 8, 2009).
  84. Tam 2009.
  85. Shi 2011.
  86. 샤오쉐후이 2006.
  87. Ministry of Information Industry of China 2006, Xue 2008, p88에서 재인용.
  88. China Labor Bulletin 2011a.
  89. Hore 2011.
  90. Wright 2010.
  91. Whyte 2010, p114.
  92. Lee 2007, pp124-125.
  93. 백승욱 2008, p70.
  94. 백승욱 2008, p98.
  95. 백승욱 2008, pp361-375.
  96. 호어 2005, 3장과 4장을 보시오.
  97. Perry 2008, pp209-210.
  98. Chan, Chris 2010, pp33-34.
  99. Pringle 2011, pp76-77.
  100. China Daily (July 31, 2009), Friedman & Lee 2010, p520에서 재인용.
  101. Zhang 2008, pp28-29.
  102. Lai 2009.
  103. Chan, Anita 2006, p285, Chan, Chris 2010, p8에서 재인용.
  104. Chan & Ngai 2009, p287. 중국에서 토지의 궁극적 소유자는 국가이지만 정부는 농촌 호구를 가진 이에게 15~30년을 단위로 토지 소유권을 보장한다. 그러나 국가가 필요하면 ‘적절한 보상을 거쳐’ 언제든 소유권을 박탈할 수 있다. 물론, 많은 경우 제대로 보상하지 않는다.
  105. 盧暉臨 等 2010, pp67-68.
  106. Chan & Pun 2009, p291.
  107. 김용욱 2010에서 재인용.
  108. Chan, Chris 2010, p37.
  109. Chan, Chris 2010, pp167-168.
  110. Chan, Chris 2010, p170.
  111. Pringle 2011, pp103-109.
  112. Pringle 2011, pp112-113.
  113. China Labor Bulletin 2011b.
  114. Lee 2007, pp10-12.
  115. Lee 2007, p57.
  116. Lee 2007, pp57-58.
  117. Anderlini 2011.
  118. Zhan 2011, pp243-285.
  119. Anderlini 2011.
  120. Jacob 2011. Reuters, ‘Strikes crippling Western brands’ (November 26, 2011).
  121. China Labor Bulletin 2010, http://www.clb.org.hk/en/node/100834#进厂打工杂感에서 중문 원본과 영어 번역본을 모두 볼 수 있다.
질문/의견